What commends it Quran so powerfully to the historian is its authenticity, not as the Word of God, of course, as the Muslims believe but as the secular historian cannot and should not, but rather as a document attesting to what Muhammad said at that time and place, early seventh-century Mecca. It is not a transcript, however; our present Quran is the result of an edition prepared under the orders of Uthman Those Uthmanic clues are fragmentary, however, and large ‘invented’ portions might well have been added to our Quran or authentic material deleted. So it has been charged in fact by some Muslims who failed to find in the present Quran any explicit reference to the designation of a successor to the Prophet and so have alleged tampering with the original texts. But the argument is so patently tendentious and the evidence adduced for the fact so exiguous that few have failed to be convinced that what is in our copy of the Quran is in fact what Muhammad taught, and is expressed in his own words. Muhammad, according to tradition, recited perfectly what the angel Gabriel revealed to him for his companions to write down and memorize. Muslims believe that the wording of the Quranic text available today corresponds exactly to that revealed to Muhammad in the years — It spanned a period of some twenty years and, as soon as it was believed to be transmitted to Muhammad by Archangel Gabriel, Believers learned it by heart. Variations to Christian theology[ edit ] Dr.
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Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Austrian princess Maria Antonia, child bride of the future French King Louis XVI. Their marriage was an attempt to bring about a major change in the balance of power in Europe and to undermine the influence of Prussia and Great Britain, but she had no say in the matter and was the pawn of her mother, the Empress Maria Theresa.
Stuart took early retirement from the computer industry and joined the Beeston Camera Club in He has used quality Nikon and Fuji equipment over the years to establish his success in many awards and distinctions from Great Britain came second and he was awarded a Gold Medal. Stuart gave the members many tips and ideas to ponder such as, skies being very important in monochrome, and in studio work you can get away with one light only, which enhances the shadows in model work.
If you have a colour cast when printing Mono, make use of it e. Mono work must be no more than one colour, but may be any single colour. He projected notable street shots, pointing out this is banned in France but welcomed in Cuba, where it is actually encouraged. Using Lightroom for his library, and then across to Photoshop and Silver Efex Pro 2, he described all the possibilities one can achieve.
This was followed with a series of landscapes taken in Derbyshire, Scotland, Nottinghamshire and France, where for me a shot of a Chateau was particularly stunning. A selection of Stuart’s prints on show. Also 4 e-mailed images from Stuart below Thursday 27th July This meeting saw a presentation of prints from authors representing various photographic clubs around the UK.
Margaret is a nature and wildlife photographer, and provides photographic services in Prestatyn Denbighshire North Wales.
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The highest number of deaths due to derailments in a decade, the highest operating ratio signifying worsening performance in five years, declining freight loading and continued subsidisation of passenger fares. The Railways is struggling not just due to the limited priorities of the Narendra Modi government, which seems more focused on high-speed trains and improving amenities at railway stations than on the basics.
The current mess is also as a consequence of years of apathy of previous regimes, which have under-invested in the Railways and pandered to populism on fares and new routes. Is he up to the challenge? He will also perhaps need to revisit the stance taken by his predecessor — Suresh Prabhu had ruled out setting up a dedicated post of member safety on the Railway Board – to better control rising accidents. After all, accidents scalped Prabhu, coming within days of each other in August.
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts’ book Social Science History and to other resources.
Previously we were talking about the principle of Courtly Love which was given to the Knights of the Middle Ages. It is said to have been spread throughout Europe by the Troubadours, students of the Sufis, who sang songs of love, symbolising the love of God. They originated in Spain where Christianity and Islam met. This cultural clash spread the influence of Sufism, the poetry of the Sufi Masters like Jallaluddin Rumi and Averroes.
The help of the Sufi mystics sent their ideas even into the myth of King Arthur. Many Sufi mystics came from organisations with names like the builders or the lock makers Naqshbandhi. Plan of a pool at the Alhambra Granada. The Key and the Lock. When you go to the Alhambra in Granada, Spain, you come across many symbols of Sufism. Above is the plan of the Pool of water Rectangle in front of one of the beautiful buildings there.
And a fountain Circle with a water channel between the two.
Pat McNees and Debbie Brodsky talk about what personal histories are, and what personal historians do, and why Tell your story now. But you can either run from it, or learn from it. When Sting did this, his creativity was reborn. Songs exploded from his head. Leezak, character in Just Married I’m the smart one, she’s the pretty one What’s with the compulsion to make sisters into Spice girls? Writers and Editors and a site for the book Dying:
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from
Richard Cowen’s Chapter Eight: Leaving the Water – images – curent page , , to , , years ago Eurypterids, otherwise known as sea scorpions. Wikipedia Late Ordovician survivals and extinctions: There were no land animals and extinctions were confined to water life. There were two distinct extinctions roughly a million years apart. The first of these began about million years ago.
Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals.
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They met at our Asian Dating bowling event last year in London. Krish had never been bowling before — a true damsel in distress! Jeel came to the rescue and showed him how to play. He agreed to give it a try I grew up focusing only on getting a degree, a good job and a nice house in London.
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Below – My TV debate with Cardiff Freemason Jim Bevan – – – – Freemasonry and Witchcraft initiation rites compared “The great strength of our Order lies in its concealment; let it never appear in any place in its own name, but always covered by another name, and another occupation. None is better than the three lower degrees of Free Masonry; the public is accustomed to it, expects little from it, and therefore takes little notice of it.
Next to this, the form of a learned or literary society is best suited to our purpose, and had Free Masonry not existed, this cover would have been employed; and it may be much more than a cover, it may be a powerful engine in our hands. By establishing reading societies, and subscription libraries, and taking these under our direction, and supplying them through our labours, we may turn the public mind which way we will.
Books , films and ex-Freemason exposees Without doubt the most useful and accurate information on the Freemasons comes from ex memers of ‘the craft’. A large percentage of Masons are kept in the dark on purpose so the real agenda can be carried out.
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Its earliest record, from ad , is of Warberdus bequeathing Norwood Manor and Southall Manor to the archbishops of Canterbury. The chapelry of Norwood had functioned as a separate parish since the Middle Ages. In it became the Southall Norwood Urban District. A building survey has shown much of the building is original, dating back to the days when Southall Green was becoming a quiet rural village.
Minor 19th and 20th century additions exist in some areas. It is currently used as serviced offices.
Leicester events, clubs, gigs and what’s on. Our guide to What’s On in Leicester covers Leicester clubs, Leicester gig guide, comedy, tickets and event listings and line ups, venue.
When my nan died everything changed. I had to face up to something for the first time in my life. She gets on very well with my daughter, and neither of us over-analyse things. A lot of families we saw had widows looking after five or six children. Seeing them live in such extreme poverty without fathers but with such dignity put everything into perspective. I suddenly remembered being at court when my father adopted me at seven.
I remembered my mother and father getting married. They had a Hindu wedding in Leicester, then a registry office ceremony, followed by a Catholic wedding in Peterborough — all in the same afternoon — to please all the families. She was 17 or 18 and a working-class Catholic in a white area.